小心跑到脫水 炎夏路跑的補水之道

運動筆記  安嘀 發表於2017/08/11

 

完美的路跑體驗,有賴於良好的健康身體,當說到比賽、練習當中最怕遇到的意外狀況時,「脫水」絕對是其中的項目之一,特別在是在炎炎夏日的時刻。也因此,如何在享受路跑的過程中,有效避免脫水的狀況發生,這邊邀請到自由隊長-永不停歇的跑步醫師張懷仁來跟大家分享。

 

 

從中暑說起

水在一般成年人的體內,約莫佔有 70%的比例(老年人會降到 50%),同時肌肉中 75%的含量也是由水組成,在骨頭質量中則佔有 25%。如此即能明瞭水對人體的重要性,絕對可以說是不言而喻。

倘若身體處在高溫環境中進行運動,大量出汗將直接導致脫水的情形發生。一旦身體開始發生脫水狀況,「中暑」的狀況就會隨著而來。在醫學上也稱為「熱疲勞」,肇因體內水分和鹽分的補給,趕不上大量流汗帶走的水分,即會形成脫水症狀的發生。

以跑步運動來談,水分絕對是我們散熱最重要的來源,它能維持體內養分循環的運作,也是糖分、脂肪混合燃燒的驅動要素之一,一旦糖分無法在運動過程中有效燃燒,不僅會會發生跑到爆掉的狀況,更嚴重則會讓身體產生極度不適。

 

水份為重要散熱來源,運動過程中必須即時、隨時補充(圖片來源:123RF)

 

脫水會有哪些症狀?

脫水可依水分與鈉流失比例的「等滲性」,分為高、中、低三個等級,對於人體能影響甚鉅。主要會讓人體產生倦怠疲勞,站起時頭暈眼花,甚至意識不清的狀況發生,部分患者可能因為臟器動脈供血不足,發生胸痛,腹痛。

如果覺得難懂,那麼請謹記脫水最直接感受到的症狀:會先從口乾舌燥開始,若忽略了補給的重要性,抽筋、頭暈、頭暈眼花的情形將會伴隨而來,再嚴重一點將會徹底失去意識。

 

一切源於電解質

除了導致中暑狀況發生,脫水也伴隨體內電解質的流失,導致生理條件失去平衡。電解質在化學上的定義,是在溶液中可離子化並且能傳導電流的化合物,在運動生理學中主要指汗液中的鈉、氯離子和少量的鉀與鈣。電解質牽動人體機能的運作,包括鈉、鉀、氯、鈣等礦物質,激烈運動後流汗的同時,水分及電解質亦會跟著流失。

一般而言,運動時間 60 至 90 分鐘內,大部分的運動員只會流失體內非常小部份的電解質,體內的儲存肝醣,會自動釋放到血液中,來維持電解質的恆定。倘若白開水攝取過度,容易讓電解質稀釋於體內,導致生理失衡,這就是為什麼人們在運動時,會同步佐以運動飲料的補充,除了吸收水分外,亦可補充體內流失的電解質。

 

激烈運動後流汗的同時,水分及電解質亦會跟著流失,選擇等滲透壓飲料,能夠有效補給身體流失的電解質
(圖片來源:123RF)

 

賽前、賽中的補水之道

我們通常都不會忘記能量的補充,然而光有能量並不夠,水分更是你不能忽視的元素,而這也正是當你在參加路跑賽時,每一個水站都要盡量補充的原因:即使當下感覺不渴,也別為了搶快時間,而錯過了補給時機。

不單路跑項目,任何的運動都一樣,透過穩定持續的水分補給,才能讓我們這個含有 70% 以上水分的身體好好運作,為每次比賽帶來最佳表現!

 


以上內容由 FIN 贊助刊出。

 

 

*運動知識 盡在運動筆記*


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